The problem of metabolic disorders is rather widely raised in the modern world community and concerns so many people. According to statistics, more than 400 million people in the world live with such diseases. That is why we decided to find out what foods are good for diabetes and what foods should be avoided.
Diabetes diet: How to create your healthy-eating plan?
The therapeutic effect of nutrition in diabetes is not contested by any specialist today. The diet for diabetic patients is developed taking into account the type of disease (1 or 2), the general condition of the patient, the degree of the pathology, associated diseases, the level of physical activity, medications taken by the patient, etc.
All people have long established eating habits and favorite dishes. A diabetologist should take into account this factor when creating a healthy-eating plan for the patient.
The factor of individualization of the diet is extremely important in making up an anti-diabetic diet. One cannot just take everything that a person ate before and replace it with completely different components. It is only necessary to correct the habitual food for a person, eliminating harmful products. It is especially important to observe this principle when treating a disease in children because it will be much more difficult to persuade a child to eat that food which is unpleasant for him. There is also no need to invent any special diabetic food recipes because there are well-known recipes that fully meet the needs of the diet table.
Features of an anti-diabetic diet for pregnant women
Pregnant women should follow a special diet, taking into account the physiological characteristics of the patient. It is important that the method proposed for a pregnant woman does not harm not only her health but also the health of her unborn child. In such a food system, women should receive all the nutrients necessary for the development of the child.
Features of a diabetes diet
Diabetes diet also plays an important role. However, nutritionists’ opinions differ on how often to eat with diabetes. The traditional school of diabetology holds the opinion that if a person eats 5-6 times a day, this gives the maximum therapeutic effect. During the day there should be 3 main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner). Each meal can consist of 2-3 dishes. Also, the patient can make 2 or 3 snacks during the day. It is recommended that food is taken every day at about the same time.
Each meal should have a certain amount of calories. The total calories should be distributed like this:
- during breakfast – 25%
- during the second breakfast – 10-15%
- in the afternoon – 25-30%
- in the mid-morning snack – 5-10%
- during dinner – 20-25%
- during the second dinner – 5-10%
But there are supporters of the point of view that the patient should eat 2-3 times a day to avoid an excessive load on the pancreas. Also, there is the opinion that a patient should eat carbohydrate-rich food mainly in the morning.
Here are some more tips developed by diabetologists to increase the therapeutic effect:
- a patient must eat the last meal of the day at least 3 hours before going to bed;
- when eating, foods rich in fiber should go first on the list;
- if a person eats a small amount of sweets, then he should eat them during the main meal, and not as a snack to avoid a sharp increase in blood sugar;
- the patient must not eat immediately after physical exertion, after stress;
- a patient must eat moderately, avoid overeating and leave the table with a feeling of light hunger.
Tips for cooking with diabetes
- A properly created diet should take the way of cooking into account. Long-term heat treatment is not recommended. Therefore, all dishes must be either boiled or steamed. Remember that heat treatment increases the glycemic index;
- Grilled, deep-fried, fast food, semi-finished foods are prohibited. It is not recommended to use mayonnaise, ketchup, sauces when cooking dishes;
- Those products with a high starch content should not be boiled over and crushed since the starch is better digested after such processing. Therefore, potatoes should be cooked in their skins, and cereals do not need to be boiled over;
- Meals should be served neither cold nor hot.
Best foods for diabetics
All diabetics should drink fresh juices from vegetables. The best juice for diabetics is made of celery, parsley and dill. The juice from these ingredients perfectly helps stabilize blood sugar levels.
Here are the best foods for diabetics, both type 1 and type 2:
- Lean meat (chicken without skin, turkey, rabbit, veal);
- All kinds of fish and seafood;
- Eggs (quail and chicken protein);
- Milk and dairy products (no sugar and artificial additives; low-fat);
- Unleavened whole grain bread, corn tortillas, etc.;
- Healthy fats (natural vegetable oils of good quality);
- Cereals (buckwheat, corn, barley, millet, pearl barley, brown rice, quinoa);
- Fruits (apples, peaches, oranges, tangerines);
- Berries (strawberries, raspberries, currants, cherries, gooseberries);
- Vegetables (spinach, eggplants, zucchini, radishes, etc.) and greens;
- Drinks (compote, juice, jelly, tea).
Foods to avoid when you have diabetes
With type 1 diabetes, there is no particular restriction on food – the patient only needs to receive a proper insulin dose. Until the dose is not selected, a patient should avoid pickles, spicy and fatty foods. Of course, one should not forget that nutrition for this type of diabetes must be balanced and healthy.
With type 2 diabetes, specialists recommend to exclude the following products from a diet:
- White bread, pies, dumplings;
- Sugar, pastry;
- Sweet carbonated drinks and sweet juices;
- Lard, pork and pork products;
- Potatoes and rice;
- Raisins, dates, bananas, figs, dried apricots, grapes, persimmons, melons, apricots.
In addition, a person should limit the consumption of fried, spicy, salted and canned foods. It’s necessary to carefully monitor fat intake (no more than 10% of calories daily) since fats provoke heart disease, to which diabetics are predisposed.
Thus, the diet in diabetes resembles a popular “proper nutrition” and suggests fragmentation (5-6 times a day) of meals, the predominance of plant foods rich in fiber, vitamins and microelements, the lack of fat, smoked and flour in the diet.