Everyone knows that the main manifestation of this disease is increased blood glucose. At the stage of prediabetes, the fasting blood glucose level is below pathogenic. Doctors gave this transition state a difficult name – impaired glucose tolerance, in which the fasting glucose level is less than 7.0 mmol/l. Two hours after the exercise test, during which a person is allowed to drink 75 g of dissolved glucose, it achieves the range of 7.8–11.1 mmol/l.
In recent years, doctors introduced another concept – impaired fasting glucose, in which the fasting glucose level is from 6.1 to 7.0 mmol/l, and two hours after the glucose level is within the normal range, that is, less than 7.8 mmol/l.
Both diagnoses reflect impaired carbohydrate metabolism and a high likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. However, there are no signs of disease (such as thirst, dry mouth, itchy skin) at this stage. They appear much later, with a high level of blood glucose, when diabetes mellitus has already come into its force.
Risk factors for diabetes
- Overweight and obesity (body mass index is more than 25 kg/m²);
- The presence of close relatives with type 2 diabetes;
- Low physical activity;
- Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy);
- Birth of a large child (more than 4 kg);
- Arterial hypertension (pressure – more than 140/90 mm Hg. Art.);
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (in women).
Unfortunately, many doctors do not pay too much attention to such indicators. The patient is recommended to visit a doctor at the moment his analyzes show threatening values.
For specialists, this state of affairs does not cause anything but affliction. After all, prediabetes is a reversible condition, which is 50% of cases can be changed to normal if following certain condition. If a person radically changes the lifestyle and reduces overweight, since it is the very reason which in many ways results in the development of diabetes.
The main recommendations
- Adequate physical activity. Not less than 10.000 steps a day. Also, it is useful to swim, dance, ski, cycling regularly (at least three times a week).
- Balanced nutrition, in which you need to minimize the consumption of fat (fatty meat, fish, poultry with skin, lard, sausages, vegetable and butter, fatty dairy products, canned food, mayonnaise, confectionery, nuts, seeds), simple carbohydrates (sugar and sweets), alcohol.
- But the consumption of vegetables (except potatoes) must, on the contrary, be increased. You can also eat fractional. It means to take food often but in a small quantity, avoiding the feeling of hunger that makes us overeat. By the way, for the same reason, it is proposed to move the main meal to the morning and the lunch, and not to the dinner.
All these simple measures will help avoid the development of diabetes and its dangerous complications.