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What is Micronase?
Micronase is one of the most popular and studied glucose-lowering drugs used for treating type 2 diabetes with the ineffectiveness of lifestyle change measures. The active substance (glyburide) refers to oral hypoglycemic drugs derived from sulfonylurea II generation. The drug stimulates the work of pancreatic cells, which is accompanied by mobilization and increased release of endogenous insulin. The drug is effective in the presence of functionally capable β-cells in the pancreas, which, in fact, produce endogenous insulin. It helps to reduce platelet aggregation. The action of glyburide lasts from 8 to 12 hours. In addition to hypoglycemic properties, it is also able to reduce blood thrombogenicity (i.e., the ability of blood to clot).
How should I use Micronase?
Tablets are taken orally, after meals, 2 times a day. A more accurate dosage is prescribed by the doctor depending on the individual indicators of the state and course of the patient’s illness. It’s recommended to start treatment with the minimum dose (0.001 g), gradually increasing it to the maximum allowable (0.02 g) per day.
When the glucose level in the blood becomes stable, a maintenance dose is used (0.005-0.01 g).
If the positive effect does not occur after 6 weeks of treatment, it should not be considered suitable for this patient. In this case, the doctor selects a more suitable drug.
What are the contraindications of this medicine?
Do not use Micronase in the presence of any of the following conditions:
- hypersensitivity to glyburide and/or any excipient of the drug;·
- hypersensitivity to other sulfonylurea derivatives, sulfonamides,
- diuretics containing a sulfonamide group in the molecule, probenecid, as there may be cross-reactions;
- type 1 diabetes;
- diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic pre-coma, coma;
- condition after resection of the pancreas;
- severe abnormal liver function;
- severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance severe insufficiency of the adrenal cortex;
- decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism in infectious diseases, burns, injuries or after major surgeries when insulin therapy is indicated;
- intestinal obstruction, paresis of the stomach;
- hereditary lactose intolerance, lactase deficiency or malabsorption syndrome of glucose and lactose;
- pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- age up to 18 years (efficiency and safety are not studied);
- deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase;
- simultaneous use with bosentan.
With caution: febrile syndrome; thyroid diseases (with dysfunction); insufficiency of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary or adrenal cortex; alcoholism, acute alcohol intoxication; conditions involving a violation of food intake and the risk of hypoglycemia; renal failure of mild and moderate severity (creatinine clearance ≥ 30 ml/min); liver failure and moderate severity; cerebral atherosclerosis; elderly patients due to the risk of hypoglycemia.
What are the side effects of Micronase?
If the dosage is chosen incorrectly, a patient can experience the following side effects:
- hypoglycemia (blood sugar below normal);
- skin allergic reactions (rash, itching);
- bowel disorders in the form of diarrhea, nausea, vomiting;
- blood formation disorders in the form of pancytopenia;
- abnormal liver function (development cholestasis);
What may interact with this medicine?
Do not use Micronase if you are taking any of the medications listed below:
- other antidiabetic drugs and insulin;
- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors;
- anabolic steroids and male sex hormones, antidepressants (fluoxetine, MAO inhibitors);
- beta blockers;
- quinolone derivatives;
- clofibrate and its analogs;
- coumarin derivatives;
- para-aminosalicylic acid;
- pentoxifylline (administered parenterally in a high dose);
- pyrazolone derivatives;
- tetracycline antibiotics;
- cytostatics such as cyclophosphamide;
- beta blockers;
- phenothiazine derivatives, phenytoin;
- thyroid hormones;
- female sex hormones (gestagen, estrogen);
- H2 receptor blockers;
What should I watch for while using this medicine?
The use of Micronase during pregnancy is contraindicated. When pregnancy occurs, the drug should be canceled. When planning a pregnancy, oral hypoglycemic therapy should be replaced by insulin therapy.
No data are available on the penetration of glyburide into breast milk. Since other sulfonylurea derivatives penetrate into breast milk, the use of Micronase during breastfeeding is contraindicated.
An overdose of the drug may lead to a sharp drop in blood sugar, which can lead to an attack of hypoglycemia. Sharp sweating, tachycardia, a feeling of nervousness, anxiety, hunger, pallor or redness of the skin of the face, headache, and uncertainty of movements can be external manifestations of hypoglycemia. If the glucose level continues to fall, the patient first loses control over his condition, then he may lose consciousness, fall into a coma.
Tablets should be taken regularly and, if possible, at the same time.
A patient must carefully observe the mode of drug administration and diet.
Large surgical interventions and injuries, extensive burns, infectious diseases with the febrile syndrome may require the withdrawal of the drug.
It is not recommended to stay in the sun for a long time during treatment.
In elderly patients, the risk of hypoglycemia is somewhat higher; therefore, it’s necessary to select the dose more carefully and to monitor fasting blood glucose after a meal regularly, especially at the beginning of treatment.
Alcohol can provoke hypoglycemia, as well as a disulfiram-like reaction (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, a sensation of heat in the skin of the face and upper body, tachycardia, dizziness, headache), so you should refrain from taking alcohol during treatment with Micronase.
Since the medicine can cause hypoglycemia, and, as a consequence, a decrease in reaction and ability to concentrate, patients must be careful when driving and occupying other potentially dangerous activities that require concentration and psychomotor reactions.